1. external image kayla.gif
    external image kayla.gif
    science - a branch of knowledge or study dealing with a body of facts or truths systematically arranged and showing the operation of general laws: the mathematical sciences.
  2. external image observation.jpg
    external image observation.jpg
    observation - an act or instance of regarding attentively or watching.
  3. external image data.jpg
    external image data.jpg
    data - a pl. of datum
  4. inference- the act or process of inferring.
  5. external image hypothesis.jpg
    external image hypothesis.jpg
    Hypothesis - a proposition, or set of propositions, set forth as an explanation for the occurrence of some specified group of phenomena, either asserted merely as a provisional conjecture to guide investigation (working hypothesis) or accepted as highly probable in the light of established facts.
  6. external image M-GpasteurThom.jpg
    external image M-GpasteurThom.jpg
    spontaneous generation - the theory that life began from nonliving matter
  7. external image aerobic-respiration-experimental-setup.jpeg
    external image aerobic-respiration-experimental-setup.jpeg
    controlled experiment - In scientific inquiry, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, "to try out") is a method of investigating causal relationships among variables. An experiment is a cornerstone of the empirical approach to acquiring data about the world and is used in both natural sciences and social sciences. ...
  8. external image img1854.gif
    external image img1854.gif
    manipulated variable - The factor of a system being investigated that is deliberately changed to determine that factor’s relationship to the responding variable.
  9. external image image008.jpg
    external image image008.jpg
    responding variable -
    The factor of a system being investigated that changes in response to the manipulated variable and is measured.
  10. external image string_theory.png
    external image string_theory.png
    theory - well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world; an organized system of accepted knowledge that applies in a variety of ...
  11. external image banner_biology.gif
    external image banner_biology.gif
    biology - the science that studies living organisms
  12. external image a2%20animal%20cell.png
    external image a2%20animal%20cell.png
    cell
    - any small compartment; "the cells of a honeycomb"
  13. external image highlight.jpgsexual reproduction - reproduction involving the union or fusion of a male and a female gamete
  14. external image ciliate.gifasexual reproduction - reproduction without the fusion of gametes
  15. external image 590metabolism.gifmetabolism - metamorphosis: the marked and rapid transformation of a larva into an adult that occurs in some animals
  16. external image c45x10glu-homeostasis.jpghomeostasis - physiology) metabolic equilibrium actively maintained by several complex biological mechanisms that operate via the autonomic nervous system to ...
  17. external image untitled.jpgevolve - To move in regular procession through a system; To develop
  18. external image Metric%20System.bmpmetric system - a decimal system of weights and measures based on the meter and the kilogram and the second
  19. external image micro.gifmicroscope - magnifier of the image of small objects; "the invention of the microscope led to the discovery of the cell"
  20. compound light microscope -
  21. external image Mosquito_cell_culture_IFA.jpgcell culture- Growth of cells in vitro in an artificial medium for experimental research
  22. external image k270-bottom-data.gifcell fractionation - Separation of cells by size, weight, density, and optical and bioelectrical properties.

















C. Explaining the Evidence
- Hypothesis is used as a possible explanation to the problem.

*For everyday a hypothesis is just a guess to a problem. In science it is only useful if it can be tested.




external image Redi_exp.gif
external image Redi_exp.gif



Scientific Method
1. State the problem
2. Form the hypothesis
3. Set up a controlled experiment
-Only 1 variable is manipulated at a time
4. Record and Analyze Date
-YOU WANT QAULITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE
5. Draw a conclusion - Form an inference based on data
6. Publish and Repeat - Tell Everybody and try to repeat the experiment
Spallanzani repeat experiment of Redi

Pasteur with chicken broth



Branches of Biology
study of biology is broken into Levels of Organization
1. Molecules
2.Cells
3. Tissues, organs, organ systems
4. Individual organism
5. Population
6. Community
7. Ecosystem
8. Biosphere
Notes--LevelsOfOrganization.jpg
Notes--LevelsOfOrganization.jpg












1.4 Tools and Procedures
- A common measurement system
-Scientists use METRIC SYSTEM
-why? - Used everywhere in every country so it is a common measurement system.
-Based on multiples of 10 so it is easy








SI Units
-Common measurements in metric system
-e.g.
-length - meters
-volume - liters
-mass - gram








Microscopes
-device that produces magnified images of structures
that are too small to see with the naked eye
-Light Microscopes
-focus visible light rays
-Most commonly used
-produce magnification of 1000x
-compound light microscope uses 2 lenses.








Electron Microscopes
-focus beams of electrons
-produce magnification of 1,000,000x
- 2 types
1. Transmission Electron Microscopes (TEM)
-beam of electrons goes through speciman
2. Scanning Electron Microscopes (SEM)
-beam of electrons goes across speciman
-Electron microscopes cannot see live specimans...must be dead





Laboratory Techniques
1. Cell Cultures
-Biologists reproduce cells from 1 cell on a nutritious medium (petri dish)



2. Cell Fractionization
-break cells apart in a miniature blender
-separate call parts through centrifuge
-heaviest parts settle at the bottom

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